Published Research on Trends in Medical EducationPublished Research on Trends in Medical Education

There’s a lot happening in the field of medical education, and published research is a great way to get credible information from experts in the field. We’ve selected the articles listed below for their contributions to understanding data and trends on funding for U.S. graduate medical education, medical workforce issues, and international medical education.

Published research can provide you with up-to-date and credible information about trends in medical education. The articles listed below contain informative data about trends in medical education, including graduate medical education funding, medical workforce issues and international trends.

Click on the title of an article below to view its PubMed listing, or the full text if freely available. You may be able to access the full article through a local library.

Funding for Graduate Medical Education

Salsberg ES, Rockey PH, Rivers KL, Brotherton SE, Jackson GR. U.S. residency training before and after the 1997 Balanced Budget Act, Journal of the American Medical Association. 2008;300(10):1174-1180.

The 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA) limited Medicare funding for additional trainees in U.S. graduate medical education (GME). This study examines the number of residents before and after the BBA, as well as other changes in GME by specialty, gender, and type and location of GME.

Iglehart JK. The uncertain future of Medicare and graduate medical education, The New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365:14.

The supply of physicians in the United States has fluctuated widely over decades, driven by decisions of individuals, private organizations, and governments. This article discusses the role that the government and Medicare have in the future of U.S. graduate medical education (GME).

Chen C, Chen F, Mullan F. Teaching health centers: a new paradigm in graduate medical education, Academic Medicine. 2012;87(12):1752-1756.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 created the Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program to provide graduate medical education (GME) funding directly to community-based health centers that expand or establish new primary care residency programs. This study examines the first 11 teaching health centers.

Medical Workforce Issues

Mullan F. The metrics of the physician brain drain, The New England Journal of Medicine. 2005; 353:1810-1818.

There has been substantial immigration of physicians to developed countries. Many of these physicians come from lower-income countries, with benefits to both the recipient nations and physicians. This article examines how the less developed countries lose important health capabilities by losing the physicians.

Norcini JJ, van Zanten M, Boulet JR. The contribution of international medical graduates to diversity in the U.S. physician workforce: graduate medical education. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 2008;19(2):493-499.

International medical graduates (IMGs) provide much-needed diversity in graduate medical education (GME) in the United States. This study describes the ethnicity and gender distribution of the IMGs qualified to enter U.S. GME and those who are actually in U.S. GME.

Berwick DM. Launching accountable care organizations—the proposed rule for the Medicare Shared Savings Program. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2001;364:e32.

Section 3022 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) establishes the Medicare Shared Savings Program for accountable care organizations (ACOs) as a potential solution to the fragmented, and therefore inefficient, nature of the health care delivery and payment systems in the United States. This article examines the creation of ACOs as one of the first delivery-reform initiatives that will be implemented under the ACA.

International Medical Education

Boulet J, Cooper RA, Seeling SS, Norcini JJ, McKinley DW. U.S. citizens who obtain their medical degrees abroad: an overview, 1992-2006. Health Affairs. 2009;28(1):226-233..

The number of U.S. citizens attending medical school outside the United States and Canada has increased recently. This study examines the characteristics and educational experiences of these U.S.-citizen international medical graduates (IMGs) in comparison to other IMGs and to U.S. graduates.

van Zanten M, McKinley D, Durante I, Pijano CV. Medical education accreditation in Mexico and the Philippines: impact on student outcomes. Medical Education. 2012;46:568-592.

Accreditation of undergraduate medical education programs has become more prevalent worldwide. Mexico and the Philippines both have systems of voluntary medical accreditation, with large numbers of their students taking components of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®). This study investigates the link between the student USMLE exam performance and medical school accreditation status.

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